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Changes to the respiratory epithelium say from

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Unformatted text preview: surfaces, especially the mucus that effectively traps bacteria. In the lungs, this is aided by the cilia. The cilia waft the microorganisms up into the mouth, which is then swallowed in sputum, and denatured in the acid of the stomach. Changes to the respiratory epithelium, say from smoking, they dedifferentiate from ciliated to a much less effective barrier to microorganisms. In addition to the physical properties of mucus, it is full of antimicrobial factors: enzymes, highly cationic proteins, etc. The same is true for the skin, through sweat. In the sebaceous glands are antimicrobial factors (fatty acids, low pH, etc.) The skin is relatively inhospitable. A highly complex resident microbiota is an extremely effective defense. They block pathogen colonization. They produce their own antimicrobial factors: acids, bacteriocins (antibiotics from a bacteria itself) The Compl...
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