Outlying centers like the one near st louis had these

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Unformatted text preview: was a period of regional clashes and struggles. Water control- source of power and potential vulnerability. The chinampa- the marsh- lake bed based system of water control was a highly effective form of agriculture HG had affected every inch of the Americas by 10,000 BC. State- centric views provide a mark for fixation. Maybe 60% of the population of the Americas were subject to state power, while only 30- 40% of the territory was under state control. Estimates are that the Incan empire had 8- 12 million people, but in the rest of south America? No idea, but less densely settled AND the rest of South America PROBABLY didn’t have more people than the Incan empire. The Aztec empire (150/200 miles N of Mexico city, south to Guatemala, Nicaragua, Yucatan) was large, but there were also empires near the Aztecs that were never conquered, as well as sporadic Mayan empires that were never conquered. The majority of Mesoamerica was state based, but not all Aztec rule. The people of Hispaniola (Dominican Republic) seemed to be either state organized, or rapidly becoming so (effective production, organized political system, etc.) when Columbus landed. Stateness HAD likely reached New Mexico and Colorado, but by the time of the European conquest, stateness had shrunk back to a few hundred miles north of Mexico city. There are constructs near St. Louis- called mounds- that reflect the pyramids of the Mesoamerican cultures- indicating that an urban center was built around...
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