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Costs and benefits benefits to learning costs to

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Unformatted text preview: ors, colors, and visual patterns associated with either positive or negative outcomes. Costs and Benefits Benefits to learning? Costs to learning? Schistocerca americana Grasshoppers http://www.cirrusimage.com/Lynette/American_bird_grasshopper_small.jpg 7 3/6/2014 Benefits to Learning: Experimental Example Dukas R, Bernays EA. 2000. Learning improves growth rate in grasshoppers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:2637-40 Newly molted 6th-instar nymphs from a lab colony of S. americana grasshoppers Benefits to Learning: Experimental Example 2 experimental groups: 1. Learning group • Learned to associate food qualities with various cues by repeated exposure 2. Random group • Prevented from obtaining long-term association between food quality and cues Benefits to Learning: Experimental Example Learning group Predictable environment – Balanced food on one side with one color and flavor – Deficient food on other side with a different color and flavor Random group environment Unpredictable – The location, color and flavor of the balanced and deficient food were changed randomly, preventing associative learning 8 3/6/2014 Benefits to Learning: The Experiment Each cage contained 2 food dishes: – Balanced diet – Deficient diet carbohydrates protein and carbohydrates protein but no Feeding on a carbohydrate-deficient diet is associated with lower growth rates Benefits to Learning: Experimental Results Benefits to Learning: Experimental Conclusions • The Learning grassh...
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