1-Introduction

Murraya1 fabien kenigb christian h fritsena

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Unformatted text preview: published that anthrax was caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Also showed that tuberculosis, causing one- seventh of all human deaths at the Mme, was caused by a bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 8 Mammals Microorganisms •  •  •  •  Prokaryotes “before the nucleus”. –  Bacteria –  Archaea Eukarya “true nucleus”. –  Protozoa (ex: Amoeba) –  Alga (ex: Euglena) –  Fungi (ex: yeasts) –  Plant cells –  Animal cells Humans Vascular plants Shelly invertebrates Origin of Earth (4.6 bya) Present ∼ 20% O2 1 bya O2 Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria Algal diversity 2 bya ial lif e for 3 bya Anoxic Earth Earth is slowly oxygenated Origin of cyanobacteria Modern eukaryotes Bacteria LUCA Archaea Viruses, Viroids, Prion LUCA: last universal common ancestor. Origin of cellular life 4 bya Eukarya 4 3 2 1 0 bya 9 Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 13th EdiMon. Microbial life •  2.5 X 1030 microbial cells on Earth. –  Avogadro constant: 6.022 x 1023 •  Present wherever scienMsts look: boiling hot springs, glacial ice, 10 km under the surface, acidic pond, high salinity pond, crude oil, toxic waste dump… •  Human microbiome: Skin: 1012 Mouth: 1010 GastrointesMnal tract: 1014 (1 Kg) Colon: 90% of gastrointesMnal tract bacteria, anaerobic environement. –  1013 human cells! –  –  –  –  Microbial life at −13 °C in the brine of an ice-sealed Antarctic lake Alison E. Murraya,1, Fabien Kenigb, Christian H. Fritsena, Christopher P. McKayc, Kaelin M. Cawleyd,2, Ross Edwardse, Emanuele Kuhna, Diane M. McKnightd, Nathaniel E. Ostromf, Vivian Penga, Adrian Ponceg, John C. Priscuh, Vladimir Samarkini, Ashley T. Townsendj, Protima Wagha, Seth A. Youngk, Pung To Yungg, and Peter T. Doranb a Division of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, Desert Research...
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