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10-Microbiology_Soil_Feb28

Soil can be divided into two broad groups mineral

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Unformatted text preview: m of nitrogen and is a major reservoir. •  Only a few prokaryotes have the ability to use N2 as a nitrogen source (nitrogen fixaAon). •  DenitrificaAon is the reducAon of nitrate to gaseous nitrogen products and is the primary mechanism by which N2 is produced biologically. •  Ammonia produced by nitrogen fixaAon or ammonificaAon can be assimilated into organic maber or oxidized to nitrate. •  AmmonificaAon: decomposiAon of organic nitrogen compounds (amino acids, etc.). 11 Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 13th EdiAon. Sulfur Cycle 12 Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 13th EdiAon. Sulfur Cycle •  Hydrogen sulfide is a major volaAle sulfur gas that is produced by bacteria via sulfate reducAon or emibed from geochemical sources. •  Sulfide is toxic to many plants and animals, and reacts with numerous metals. •  Sulfur- oxidizing chemolithotrophs can oxidize sulfide and elemental sulfur at oxic/anoxic interfaces. •  Organic sulfur compounds can also be metabolized by microorganisms. •  The most abundant organic sulfur compound in nature is dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Produced primarily in marine environments as a degradaAon product of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (an algal osmolyte). DMS can be transformed via a number of microbial processes. 13 Microbiology of soil Chap 13, 23, 25 14 Soil •  The loose outer material of Earth’s surface, disAnct from bedrock. •  Soil can be divided into two broad groups: –  Mineral soils: derived from r...
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