These advisories forbid any direct contact with the

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Unformatted text preview: a (27). All species with microcystin-producing strains also include related strains that lack the ability to produce this toxin. The nonproducing strains cannot be differentiated by traditional microscopy or ribosomal gene sequences (15). Reliable tools to detect and characterize toxin-producing cyanobacteria are required. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) are currently the most widely used techniques to evaluate whether toxins are present in water samples. The risk assessment response to the increasing occurrence of cyanotoxins has been seriously constrained due to the limited number of available standards and the limited analytical capability of some laboratories. At least 89 microcystin analogues have been characterized (35), but fewer than 10 reference standards are currently available. The development and validation of increasingly sensitive, specific, and reliable molecular tools will contribute to the next generation of moni...
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