This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: a (27).
All species with microcystin-producing strains also include
related strains that lack the ability to produce this toxin. The
nonproducing strains cannot be differentiated by traditional
microscopy or ribosomal gene sequences (15). Reliable tools to
detect and characterize toxin-producing cyanobacteria are required. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and
high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) are currently
the most widely used techniques to evaluate whether toxins are
present in water samples. The risk assessment response to the
increasing occurrence of cyanotoxins has been seriously constrained due to the limited number of available standards and
the limited analytical capability of some laboratories. At least
89 microcystin analogues have been characterized (35), but
fewer than 10 reference standards are currently available.
The development and validation of increasingly sensitive,
speciﬁc, and reliable molecular tools will contribute to the next
generation of moni...
View Full Document
- Spring '07