Lower row mdma induced decreases in rcbf e superior

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Unformatted text preview: ­HT –  DA and NE (less than 5 ­HT) – different from hallucinogens •  Mechanisms –  Block reuptake (5x amph) –  Reverse reuptake –  Others like AMPH? Neurobiological Effects 1) MDMA increases oxytocin levels, which may strengthen the therapeuCc effects; 2) MDMA increases ventromedial prefrontal acCvity and decreases amygdala acCvity, which may improve emoConal regulaCon and decrease avoidance, and 3) MDMA increases norepinephrine release and circulaCng corCsol levels, which may facilitate emoConal engagement and enhance exCncCon of learned fear associaCons. DSM ­IV Dependence Criteria by Pill Use 1-99 pills (n=387) 100-499 pills (n=178) 500+ pills (n=69) 100 p<.0001 p=.0014 p<.0001 80 p<.0001 p<.0001 60 p<.0001 40 p<.0001 20 0 Tolerance W ithdrawal Takes substance in larger amounts or over longer period Can't cut down or control use Much time spent using/recovering from use Important a ctivities given up for substance Substance used despite knowing it caused physical or psychological harm rCBF differences between MDMA and placebo. Upper row: MDMA-induced increases in rCBF. a = ventromedial frontal cortex (including orbitofrontal and ventral anterior cingulate cortex), b = cerebellum, c = inferior temporal cortex, d = occipital cortex. Lower row: MDMA-induced decreases in rCBF. e = superior temporal cortex, f = insula, g = Thalamus, h = p...
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