12 usually synthesized from morphine usually

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Unformatted text preview: nergic cells •  Opiates and opioid NTS s ac5vate the presynap5c opioid receptors on GABA neurons •  This inhibits the release of GABA in the VTA •  Inhibi5ng GABA allows the dopaminergic neurons to fire faster Morphine first isolated in 1804 by Friedrich Serturner •  Direct/indirect agonist •  Most oNen administered subcutaneously; also smoked, taken orally, or via mucosa •  Not very lipid soluble, doesn t cross BBB easily "Oh, jab me with your needle a hundred 6mes And a hundred 6mes I will bless you, Saint Morphine" Jules Verne (1828  ­ 1905) Codeine (methylated morphine) •  Direct/indirect agonist •  Alkaloid found naturally in opium in low concentra5ons (0.1 ­2%); usually synthesized from morphine •  Usually administered orally •  0.1 5mes as potent as morphine •  Converted into morphine aNer crossing BBB •  Used for cough suppression, diarrhea, moderate pain Heroin (diacetylmorphine) •  Direct/indirect agonist •  Synthesized from morphine •  Administered IV, SC, snorted or smoked •  IV and smoked lead to fast onset and rush •  3 5mes as potent as morphine •  Not directly an efficacious mu agonist, but more lipid soluble than morphine •  Enters brai...
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2014 for the course COGS 174 taught by Professor Pineda during the Winter '11 term at UCSD.

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