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Unformatted text preview: erent opiates and between opiates and opioids Mechanisms for Tolerance •  Downregula5on (conversely, antagonists upregulate) •  Decreased receptor sensi5vity •  Reduced synthesis of opioid pep5des •  Also, another possible mechanism, based on synthesis... Opiate Withdrawal (5 ­10 days) A. Either of the following: (1) Cessa5on of (or reduc5on in) opiate use that has been heavy and prolonged (several weeks or longer) (2) Administra5on of an opioid antagonist aNer a period of opioid use (rapid vs slow abs5nence) B. Three or more of the following, developing within minutes to days aNer Criterion A: (1) Dysphoric mood, depression (2) Nausea or vomi5ng (3) Muscle aches, cramps, tremors (4) Watery eyes or runny nose (5) Dilated pupils, goosebumps, or swea5ng (6) Diarrhea (7) Yawning (8) Fever (9) Insomnia C. Symptoms in Criterion B cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupa5onal, or other important areas of func5oning. Protracted Abs6nence Syndrome •  Can last up to 6 ­7 months aNer withdrawal •  Vague sense of feeling abnormal •  Depression (increased propensity to sleep) •  Abnormal response to stress •  Abnormal respira5on...
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