Lecture 10 - Placebo and Expectancy

Evidence that expecta3on of pain relief ac3vates mu

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Unformatted text preview: colt ­Glaser (1995): Wound Healing •  Prospec3ve study of stress on wound healing –  Caregivers vs. controls –  Both undergo biopsy wound •  Healing takes significantly longer in controls –  Differences in peripheral blood leukocytes Dealing with Placebo and Nocebo Effects in Experiments Study Designs (randomly assigned to experimental/placebo arms; passive vs ac:ve placebos) •  Blinded Study ­ Par3cipant doesn t know if they are receiving treatment or placebo •  Double ­Blinded Study ­ Par3cipant and Experimenter do not know if treatment or placebo is being given •  Double ­Blind, Crossover Study ­ Same as double ­blinded, except par3cipants get treatment and placebo in random order (controls for Ss variability) Ethics of Clinical Studies •  Is placebo ethical? •  Is prescribing placebos deceiuul or unethical? •  Some3mes standard therapies are found to be dangerous •  In 2006, the American Medical Associa3on created a policy concerning placebos. It states that "physicians may use placebos for diagnosis or treatment only if the pa3ent is informed of and agrees to its use" [source: AMA]. Source of Placebo: Pavlovian Condi3oning Why the high responsiveness to expecta3on of pain relief? •  Evidence that expecta3on of pain relief ac3vates mu ­ opioid neurotransmi7er system ( endorphins ) Red & orange indicate regions of heightened mu ­ opioid ac3vity when P reports posi3ve effect of placebo Zubieta et al  ­ Placebo Effects Mediated by Endogenous Opioid Ac3vity on µ ­Opioid Receptors (2005) Other factors involved i...
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2014 for the course COGS 174 taught by Professor Pineda during the Winter '11 term at UCSD.

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