Final Study Guide

Disease avoidance is thought to have an emotional and

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Unformatted text preview: ry to seek a cure). What is meant by the term “childhood disease”? A “childhood disease” is any disorder, any illness, impairment, or abnormal condition that affects primarily infants and children. How does the scientific community protect itself against errors and misconduct that may be committed by individual scientists? The scientific community protects itself against errors and misconduct that may be committed by individual scientists by investigating the research of scientists and reproducing their experiments. Vaccinations for some diseases are required of students before they can enroll in school. On what basis might a parent obtain an exemption from this requirement? A parent might obtain an exemption from the vaccination requirement by citing “religious reasons”. What is herd immunity? Herd immunity is the phenomenon in which enough people have been vaccinated and are immune so that the virus virtually cannot spread. In what respect might endemic diseases have been cultural assets that facilitated the advance of cities at the expense of rural folk? Since there are no endemic diseases and no stability in rural populations, they are very vulnerable to epidemics. Civilizations developed independently in different parts of the world and each had its own array of endemic diseases. By what mechanisms did diseases move from one civilization to another? The defeat of the Aztecs by the Spanish in the 16th century was facilitated by the arrival of smallpox, to which the indigenous people in Mexico had no immunity. Aside from causing extensive mortality how did the occurrence of smallpox help the Spanish to be victorious? European explorers introduced many diseases to the Americas, but they encountered few diseases that were new to them. Why was the exchange so asymmetrical? The debilitating effect of disease greatly facilitated displacement of New World peoples by European colonists. Why do you think was the outcome different in India and Africa, where Europeans also attempted to establish colonies? Lecture 22 What is the original meaning of the word stigma? Can you give an example of a stigma in the original sense of the word? The original meaning of the word stigma is an attribute that is deeply discrediting or a mark of disgrace. An example of “stigma” in the original sense of the word would be a physical deformity or a blemish of character such as homosexuality. What is one of the alternative names for the disease that is best known as leprosy? One of th...
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This document was uploaded on 03/21/2014.

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