Final Study Guide

Influenza epidemics are likely to occur in the future

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Unformatted text preview: on. The cognitive aspect is that disease labels bring to mind disease cues, therefore indirectly activating these same feelings of disgust and contamination. Explain the term ‘carrier stigma’ in the context of sickle- cell anemia. The carrier stigma was caused by a fear of sickle- cell anemia and an extreme aversion to those who have it. This was most likely caused by inadequate education and an overall confusion about the difference between the genetic trait and the actual disease. Lecture 23 Explain the book title ‘Survival of the Sickest’. This title suggests that many of the conditions in modern day that are diseases have actually given our ancestors a leg up in the survival sweepstakes. For example, diabetes evolved as an adaptation response to the Ice Age and prevented individuals from freezing. What are vestigial organs? Give an example. Vestigial organs are organs in the body that no longer serve a specific purpose but were once useful. However, evolution has not rid these organs from the body so they still exist and can perform a neutral to negative purpose. An example is the appendix. At one point, the appendix was needed in order to assist in digesting plant material (a fermentation chamber for intestinal bacteria), but this process is less needed now because of the advancements in diet and cooking/food preparation practices. What is lactose intolerance, what causes it, and how is it linked to the domestication of cattle for milk in prehistoric Europe? Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest lactose, a milk sugar, caused by a lack of lactase activity in the small intestine. Lactose intolerance is linked to the domestication of cattle for milk because of the prevalence of the herding and milking of cattle. The adult consumption of lactose led to a mutation that left lactase switched on into adulthood. How does the sickle- cell trait protect its carriers from malaria? The sickle- cell trait protects its carriers from malaria because two faulty copies of the hemoglobin gene results in sickle- cell anemia. As a result, due to the sickle shape of the blood cells, the molecule is not as effective in taking and releasing oxygen, so malaria parasites are unable to complete their life cycle. These benefits only occur in the heterozygous forms. How has the accumulation of the amino acid phenylalanine (a characteristic of the disease phenylketonuria) been suggested to protect against the fungal toxin ochratoxin A? Phenylalanine can pro...
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This document was uploaded on 03/21/2014.

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