Add the prefix cyclo to the name of the corresponding

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Unformatted text preview: e prefix cyclo- to the name of the corresponding alkane. Naming Cycloalkanes Naming Identify and name substituents as before. For one substituent no numbers are used. Naming Cycloalkanes Naming For multiple substituents the locations must be specified. Number the carbon atoms of the ring in the direction that gives the lowest number to the substituents at the first point of difference. First substituent is on C1 by default. Naming Cycloalkanes Naming If the ring has fewer carbons than the alkyl group attached to it then the ring is the substituent. 2.19 Sources of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Sources Sources of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Sources Natural is mainly methane with ethane and propane. Petroleum is a liquid mixture containing approximately 150 hydrocarbons. Half of these are alkanes or cycloalkanes. Distillation of crude oil gives fractions based on boiling point. Petroleum Refining Petroleum The yield of the more useful petroleum fraction used as automotive fuel is increased by two processes: Cracking. Cracking is the cleavage of carbon–carbon bonds in high molecular weight alkanes induced by heat (thermal cracking) or with catalysts (catalytic cracking). Reforming. Reforming converts the hydrocarbons in petroleum to aromatic hydrocarbons and highly branched alkanes, both of which are better automotive fuels than unbranched alkanes and cycloalkanes. Other Natural Sources of Alkanes Other Solid n-alkanes are waxy and coat the outer surface of many living things to prevent loss of water. Examples include: Pentacosane (CH3(CH2)23CH3 is found in the waxy outer layer of many insects. Hentriacontane is a component of beeswax and the outer layer of leaves of tobacco, peach trees and others. Hopanes ar...
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