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Lec+25 - Lecture 25 Rela&vity(B General Theory of Rela.vity...

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Lecture’25 Rela&vity (B) General’Theory’of’Rela.vity ±
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General’Theory’of’Rela4vity’ 2’ h7p://cdn.physorg.com/newman/gfx/news/hires/2011/artwork_darkenergy-sm.jpg
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Einstein’Field’Equa4on 3’ h7p://ls.poly.edu/~jbain/philrel/philrellectures/10.EinsteinEqus.pdf (Mathema&cs on this page is not required) h7p://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ commons/thumb/±/±5/ Components_stress_tensor.svg/500px- Components_stress_tensor.svg.png A’scalar’is’a’tensor’ of’rank’zero,’and’a’ vector’is’a’tensor’of’ rank’ one,’… ’ h7p://media-cache-ec±.pinterest.com/ upload/65²2±±²5²83382312_JFBJGVig_c.jpg
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Warping’of’Space-Time’ Special ’Rela4vity’is’concerned’only’ with’ iner&al ’frames’of’reference’( i.e. ,’ frames’that’are’ not accelerated ).’ Einstein±s’ General ’Theory’of’Rela4vity’ (1916)’goes’further’by’including’the’ eFects’of’ accelera&ons ’on’what’we’ observe.’ Its’essen4al’conclusion’is’that’the’force’ of’ gravity ’arises’from’a’ warping ’of’ space-&me ’around’a’body’of’ ma?er .’ As’a’result’an’object’moving’through’ such’a’region’of’space’in’general’ follows’a’ curved ’path’rather’than’a’ straight’one.’ ²’ h7p://2.bp.blogspot.com/-c8WGGvL2³LQ/TVhpPrSpqaI/AAAAAAAAAZQ/ ucnooXymgzs/s1600/gravity+well.jpg An’object’experiences’an’ a7rac4ve’ force ’as’a’result’of’a’ space-4me’ distor&on ,’like’a’ marble’rolls’towards’the’ bo7om’of’a’depression’in’a’ rubber’sheet.’ h7p://sta4c.bbc.co.uk/universe/img/ic/6²0/ques4ons_and_ideas/ general_rela4vity/general_rela4vity_large.jpg
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Principle’of’Equivalence’ The’ Principle of Equivalence ’is’central’to’ General’Rela4vity:’An’ observer’in’a’closed’ laboratory/spaceship’ cannot dis&nguish between’the’eFects’ produced’by’a’ gravita&onal Feld and’ those’produced’by’an’ accelera&on ’of’the’ laboratory/spaceship.’ 5’ If’a’group’of’scien4sts’were’inside’an’ accelera&ng ’laboratory/spaceship’and’ performed’a’series’of’experiments,’ they’would’get’ exactly the same results’as’if’si±ng’s4ll’on’a’planet’ whose’ gravity ’provided’that’ same accelera4on.’ h7p://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/gravity-as-accelera4on.html a’ g’ a = g’
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Gravity’and’Light’ If’a’light’beam’is’directed’ across’an’ accelerated spaceship,’the’beam±s’ path’ rela&ve
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