Clinical Chemistry 2 collection of specimens

Inpeoplewith malariaendocarditistyphoid

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Unformatted text preview: s with AIDS keep a careful watch on their T­cell level, an indicator of the AIDS virus' activity. MONOCYTE MONOCYTE This cell is the largest of the leukocytes and is agranular. The nucleus is most often "U" or kidney bean shaped; the cytoplasm is abundant and light blue These cells leave the blood stream (diapedesis) to become macrophages. As a monocyte or macrophage, these cells are phagocytic and defend the body against viruses and bacteria. These cells account for 3­9% of all leukocytes. In people with malaria, endocarditis, typhoid fever, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, monocytes increase in number. ERYTHROCYTE ERYTHROCYTE The background cells in this micrograph are erythrocytes (red blood cells). These cells are non­ nucleated, biconcave discs that are filled with hemoglobin. The primary function of these cells is to carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells. Woman usually have 4­5 million erythrocytes per cubic millimeter of blood, men have 5­6 million. If this number is considerably higher, polycythemia may be the cause. If the number is considerably less, the person has anemia. Sickle cell anemia is an inherited condition which results in some erythrocytes being malformed. The gene for this condition causes the hemoglobin to be incorrectly formed, which in turn causes some erythrocytes to take on a crescent shape. These cells are not able to carry adequate amounts of oxygen to cells. THROMBOCYTES ­ THROMBOCYTES ­ PLATELETS Platelets, which are cell fragments, are seen next to the "t's" Platelets are important for proper blood clotting. Each cubic millimeter of blood should contain 250,000 to 500,000 of these. If the number is too high, spontaneous clotting may occur. If the number is too low, clotting may not occur when necessary. Plasma ­ The non­cellular portion of the blood contains proteins – some of which are involved in blood coagulation When the coagulation process is allowed to proceed to completion the non­cellular fluid which can be separated from the clotted material is called serum Blood used for biochemical analysis is collected either from veins, arteries or capillaries For most testing the site of phlebotmy has...
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