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PETE 101 - Unit 2 - Fathi - PETROLEUM ENGINEERING...

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PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Introduction to Petroleum Engineering [PETE 101] Petroleum Origin & Gelology Unit 2 Dr. Fathi H. Boukadi
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03/23/14 2 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Pop Quiz # 1 List 2 questions you may ask your employer? (2 points) List 2 keys to leadership greatness. (2 points) Define the word “engineering” in your own terms. (3 points) List 3 engineering characteristics. (3 points)
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03/23/14 3 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Petroleum Origins & Accumulation 1. Origin of Petroleum 2. Chemistry of Petroleum 3. Reservoir Rock Properties 4. Migration & Entrapment 5. Types of Traps 6. Reservoir Pressure
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03/23/14 4 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Nearly all Origin of Petroleum Inorganic:  From chemical reactions between minerals Organic: From tissue created by living organisms Methane (natural gas) can be generated by applying heat & pressure to minerals, however, vast  majority of oil and gas is  probably  from organic materials
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03/23/14 5 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Petroleum Origins & Accumulation 1. Origin of Petroleum Not enough dinosaurs etc to account for all oil we find. Need another additional explanation = microscopic plankton & algae living in oxygenated near-surface waters of oceans. crustaceans, worms, diatoms, etc = base of food chain prayed upon by macroscopic plankton - - - fish, seabirds, marine mammals --- For volume effects: Need; - Wholesale death - Rapid burial
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03/23/14 6 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Petroleum  = petra + oleum, (Latin) literally " rock oil " (oxygen rich)
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03/23/14 7 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Petroleum Origins & Accumulation 1. Origin of Petroleum Common assumption: Virtually all “ black oil ” is formed from plankton & algae All gas associated with black oil has same origin , as do most gas fields. Some natural gas originates from decaying vegetable laid down in shallow, fresh water environment (Southern North Sea).
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03/23/14 8 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Petroleum Origins & Accumulation 1. Origin of Petroleum 2. Chemistry of Petroleum Hydrocarbon molecules occur only in living things (plants & animals) & consist of hydrogen & carbon atoms C (valence 4) & H (valence 1) 1. Reservoir Rock Properties 2. Migration & Entrapment 3. Types of Traps 4. Reservoir Pressure Most  common     
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03/23/14 9 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Almost entirely C & H H= 2n + 2 (n = number carbon atoms) Increasing n implies greater viscosity, lower volatility & darker color
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03/23/14 10 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Viscosity A property of fluids & slurries that indicates their resistance to flow, defined as ratio of shear stress to shear rate . Velocity gradient measured across diameter of a fluid-flow channel , be it a pipe, annulus or other shape. Shear rate is rate of change of velocity at which one layer of fluid passes over an adjacent layer .
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