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Unformatted text preview: n Product of Water:
-ion product constant: Kw
-Equation: Kw= 1.0*10^(-14)
-So, [H3O+][OH-]=[H+][OH-]= 1.0*10^ -14
-when [H+]=[OH-], solution is neutral ! The pH Scale:
-pH=negative logarithm in base 10 of [H+]
-only numbers to right of decimal are significant in a logarithm
-as [H+] increases, the pH decreases (negative)
-look at equations in notebook ! Measuring pH:
-voltage varies with pH
-acid-base indicators: color change !
-a change in [H+] by a factor of 10 causes the pH to change by 1
Strong Acids: -you will recall that the seven strong acids are HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO3, HClO4
-These are, by definition, strong electrolytes and exist totally as ions in aqueous solution
-for the monoprotic strong acids:
[H3O+]=[acids] because it dissociates completely
-difference of 2 or greater of number of oxygens-number of hydrogens=expect it to be strong ! Strong Bases:
-strong bases are the soluble hydroxides which are the alkali metal and heavier alkaline earth
metal hydroxides (Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+)
-oxides of group one and group two metals
-if you put an oxide in water, it becomes a strong hydroxide
-dissociate 100% ! Dissociat...
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