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Political Parties, Campaigns, and ElectionsPolitical Parties, Campaigns, and ElectionsThe Donkey and the Elephant***Very important chapter. More questionson this chapter than other chapters for theexam!!
The Democratic Donkey and the Republican ElephantThe now-famousDemocratic donkeywas first associatedwith Democrat Andrew Jackson's 1828 presidentialcampaign. His opponents called him a jackass (a donkey),and Jackson decided to use the image of the strong-willedanimal on his campaign posters. Later, cartoonist ThomasNast used the Democratic donkey in newspaper cartoonsand made the symbol famous.Nast invented another famous symbol—theRepublicanelephant. In a cartoon that appeared inHarper's Weeklyin 1874, Nast drew a donkey clothed in lion's skin, scaringaway all the animals at the zoo. One of those animals, theelephant, was labeled “The Republican Vote.” That's all ittook for the elephant to become associated with theRepublican Party.Democrats today say the donkey is smart and brave, whileRepublicans say the elephant is strong and dignified.
Political Parties and Their FunctionsWhat is a Political Party?
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Political Parties, Campaigns, and ElectionsPolitical Parties, Campaigns, and ElectionsPolitical Parties sponsor candidates to run for electedoffices under their name; Parties are distinguishedfrom Interest Groups in that interest groups do notsponsor candidates.Americans recognize the value of parties but distrustthe existing ones.Many people equate democracy with the presence ofcompetitive political organizations. It’s acompetition of ideas. In this sense, competition isgood for democracy.
Party FunctionsParties contribute to democratic government through the functions theyperform for thepolitical system: the interrelated institutions that linkpeople with government1. Nomination of CandidatesEnsures minimum qualifications.2. Structuring Voter ChoiceReduces the number of candidates in the ballot. Only 1 candidate forDem & Rep is going to win out of many.3. Proposing alternative government programsCandidates advocate different policies4. Coordinating the Actions of Government OfficialsHelps bridge the separation of powers. Parties have bridges.
A History of U.S. Party PoliticsThe Emergence of the Party SystemParties werenotmentioned in the Constitution. Parties emerged.