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L15_15_Biodiversity - Lecture 15 Biodiversity(and Savannas...

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Lecture’15:’Biodiversity’(and’Savannas’/’Grasslands,’if’;me).’ Reading:’Chapter’9.’ What’is’biodiversity?’How’do’we’measure’it?’ What’gives’rise’to’biodiversity?’ Why’does’biodiversity’maJer?’ How’does’it’influence’ecosystem’stability?’ Why’do’we’care?’
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Alpha diversity --’the’diversity’as’measured’by’coun;ng’ the’total’number’of’species’(or’genera,’families,’etc.)’in’an’ ecosystem,’region,’etc.’ This’is’only’one’measure’of’diversity,’and’as’we’will’see’ later,’it’is’a’fairly’inadequate’way’of’describing’diversity.’
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Niche par11oning All’organisms’need’food:’ Plants:’Food’=’sunlight,’CO 2 ,’water,’nutrients;’ Animals:’Food’=’plants’or’other’animals’(dead’or’alive)’ Compe11ve exclusion principle: Two’species’compe±ng’for’the’ same ’ resource ’cannot’coexist’in’an’ ecosystem.’ (Because’one’species’will’always’have’a’slight’advantage’over’the’ other,’and’thus’in’the’long-term’will’outcompete’the’other’species’to’the’ point’of’ex±nc±on).’
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Species’1 ’ ’’’’ Bananas’ Species’2 ’ Bananas’ Species’3 ’ Bananas’ Species’4 ’ Bananas’ Species’5 ’ Bananas’ Organism’ Food’resource’ All’fve’species’occupy’the’same’niche.’This’can±t’go’on’²orever.’
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Species’3 ’ ’’’’ Bananas’ Organism’ Food’resource’ This’is’a’lot’like’economics!’
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Species’1 ’ ’’’’ Figs’ Species’2 ’ Nuts’ Species’3 ’ Bananas’ Species’4 ’ Pineapples’ Species’5 ’ Dates’ Organism’ Food’resource’ Niche’par;;oning’based’on’diferent’plant’±ood’types’ But’does’each’plant’type’only’support’one’consumer’species?’
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Species’1 ’ ’’’’ Banana’leaves’ Species’2 ’ Bananas’(flesh)’ Species’3 ’ Bananas’(leaves)’ Species’4 ’ Bananas’(wood)’ Species’5 ’ Bananas’(eat’animals’that’eat’bananas)’ Organism’ Food’resource’ Niche’par;;oning’based’on’diferent’parts’o±’plants’
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Species’1 ’ ’’’’ High’leaves’ Species’2 ’ Intermediate’Leaves’ Species’3 ’ Low’leaves’ Species’4 ’ Decomposing’leaves’(liJer)’ Species’5 ’ Soil’organic’maJer’(highly’decomposed)’ Organism’ Food’resource’ Niche’par;;oning’based’on’physical’accessibility’
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Species’1 ’ ’’’’ early’season’unripe’bananas’ Species’2 ’ ripe’bananas’ Species’3 ’ late’season’roJen’bananas’ Species’4 ’ day;me’feeding’ Species’5 ’ nigh;me’feeding’
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