L01_04_Sept_2013_Intro

Plants grown under diering levels of co2 c3 plants c4

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Unformatted text preview: of the Earth system: Earth system science is largely an inferen0al field. Experimenta0on is usually not possible, in contrast to many aspects of biology, chemistry, and physics. Biology: what is the effect of elevated CO2 on plant growth? (The following slide shows the results of growing C3 plants (le`) and C4 plants (right) under different levels of CO2. The results suggest that C3 plants are sensi0ve to CO2, whereas C4 plants are not). Plants grown under differing levels of CO2 C3 PLANTS C4 PLANTS Photos courtesy of Joy Ward, U. Kansas Earth System science experimental approach: Take 10 Earths, all iden0cal. Give 5 of them 2x CO2, keep the rest as ‘normal’ CO2 for control. Let the experiment run for 10,000 years and see what happens. 2x CO2 1x CO2 Earth System science experimental approach: Take 10 Earths, all iden0cal. Give 5 of them 2x CO2, keep the rest as ‘normal’ CO2 for control. Let the experiment run for 10,000 years and see what happens. 2x CO2 1x CO2 Earth as a giant chemical system (?) Consider the simple chemical system NaCl + H2O (salt + water): • ini0al state of change as solid NaCl dissolves into Na+ and Cl- • system quickly reaches equilibrium • no further changes unless perturbed by external influences Energy forcing of the system: • cyclical removal and addi0on of energy • equivalent to seasonal cycles • chemical changes are limited, for example: H2O(s) à༎ H2O(l), H2O(l) à༎ H2O(g)...
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This document was uploaded on 03/26/2014 for the course GEC AS.270.103 at Johns Hopkins.

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