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Unformatted text preview: vine (Mg,Fe)SiO4 Pyroxene (Mg,Fe)Si2O6 (orthopyroxene) Crust Olivine (Mg,Fe)SiO4 Pyroxene (Mg,Fe)Si2O6 (orthopyroxene) Amphibole Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 (tremolite) Feldspar KAlSi3O8, CaAl2Si2O8 (orthoclase, anorthite) Quartz SiO2 Mica K(Mg,Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2 (bioAte) produced by chemical reac3ons: Calcite CaCO3 Dolomite (Ca,Mg)CO3 (clays) KAl2Si2O5(OH)4 (kaolinite) Rock: A naturally occurring, solid substance composed of one or more minerals Basalt. A rock composed chiefly of the minerals plagioclase (feldspar), pyroxene, and olivine A ‘thin secAon’ of basalt, showing crystals of different minerals. Width=5mm h[p://iodp.ldeo.columbia.edu/EDU/TAS/309/pages/week4/week4.html The three basic rock types: Igneous All rock material starts out as igneous rock, that is, rock that solidifies directly from the liquid phase (magma, lava). Extrusive igneous rocks form by cooling of magma that reaches the Earth’s surface (lava). Typically fine- grained (small crystals). Intrusive igneous rocks form by cooling of magma within the earth. Typically coarse- grained (large crystals). Sedimentary Comprised of...
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