L03_9_Sept_Systems_Diagrams_and_Formation_Age_Earth

The basic idea rivers introduce salts into the ocean

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Unformatted text preview: series of iron balls to determine dependence of cooling rate on diameter • 10 different spheres with diameters ranging between 0.5 and 5 inches • Extrapolated the rela;onship to an Earth- sized sphere 34 Buffon’s results: Event Surface of Earth consolidated Earth consolidated to center Surface cool enough to touch Beginning of Life Present day End of Life (T < 0 C) Time since beginning of Earth 1 year 2,936 years 34,270 years 35,983 years 74,832 years 168,123 years (Buffon himself was suspicious of these results) 35 Buffon was incorrect, but in performing this es;mate he accomplished a couple of important ‘firsts’: First to divorce the supernatural from the natural: he appealed only to observable, physical laws to determine the age of the Earth First to introduce laboratory experimenta;on as a way of addressing larger- scale problems 36 Lord Kelvin same basic approach as Buffon, but with all possible scien;fic refinements available at the ;me: • Used Fourier’s solu;on for heat conduc;on • Used realis;c es;mates for the conduc;vity of Earth Materials • Recognized that the Earth today s;ll maintains a temperature gradient: cold on the surface, hot in the interior Given several uncertain;es, Kelvin suggested the following...
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