Neuroscience 2 Exam 2 Review

Neuroscience 2 Exam 2 Review - Neuroscience 2 Exam 2 Review...

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Neuroscience 2 Exam 2 Review Visual System Visual Association Cortex: Primary visual cortex relays the different types of information to different areas of visual association cortex in the occipital, temporal, and parietal lobes o Multiple visual areas, separate “maps” of the visual world, each specialized in function: ± Area MT is for motion: has directional cells and lesions produce akinetopsia ± An area specialized for color vision is called V4-damage produces achromatopsia o Areas of the inferior temporal and parietal lobe analyze higher order stimuli ± Object agnosia: appreceptive versus associative object agnosia ± Prosopagnosia The Extrastriate areas are interconnected into two functional pathways: o Dorsal (Parietal) pathway ± From the striate to parietal lobe for spatial information (where pathway) o Ventral Pathway ± From the striate to temporal lobe for object form and recognition (what pathway) o Continuation of 2 functional streams that began in retina-parvocellular and magnocellular Other pathways from the retina o Retinohypothalamic pathway-biorhythms o Retinotectal pathway-eye movements and orienting o Retina to the pretectum-papillary light reflex Auditory System Structures of the middle ear and their function o Middle Ear: tympanic membrane, Eustachian tube and 3 ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes) ± The tympanic membrane is an air filled cavity and is also known as the ear drum The middle ear transmits sound to fluid-filled cochlea o Sound waves cause the tympanic membrane to vibrate, setting in motion the 3 ossicles o The footplate of the stapes pushes into and out of cochlea at the oval window causing waves of motion in the fluid of the cochlea Mechanisms for impedance matching Leverage o Sound goes from air Æ liquid energy decreases o Level that you are hearing the sound at Concentration of Force o Cleats verse running shoes Structures of the cochlea and their function: ± Cochlea Divided longitudinally into three fluid-filled canals: o Scala vestibule, scala media, and scala tympani Scala vestibuli and scala timpani are continuous at the heliotrema Scala media is separated from scala vestubule by Reissner’s membrane, and from the scala timpani by the basilar membrane Auditory receptors, the mechanoreceptors called hair cells, are anchored to the basilar membrane o All along the basilar membrane these hair cells are arranged in rows anchored to the basilar membrane o The tectoral membrane forms a roof over the cilia (which are projections off of the hair cells) Hair cells during depolarizing versus hyperpolarizing receptor potentials o Motion of the stapes causes ripples, and basilar membrane moves up and down with each wave o Since hair cells are attached to basilar membrane, they move up and down with respect to the overlying tectorial membrane o The bending of the cilia open and close K ion channels, alternately depolarizing and hyperpolarizing the hair
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Neuroscience 2 Exam 2 Review - Neuroscience 2 Exam 2 Review...

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