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Unformatted text preview: s Resulting
in Altered Flow
Blood May involve arterial or venous system Obstruction results in reduced flow beyond the obstruction (downstream) and increased
pressure before the obstruction (upstream) In the arterial system obstruction manifests as
distal ischemia In the venous system obstruction manifests as
edema Thrombosis, embolus, vasospasm, mechanical
obstruction= etiologies Thrombosis
Thrombus: a stationary blood clot formed
within a vessel or a chamber of the heart.
Causes: blood flow slows dramatically,
becomes more turbulent, if there is
damage to intimal walls or drugs.
Arterial thrombosis results in ischemiathis is where oxygenated blood is carried.
Venous thrombosis results in edema.
Inflammation in a vein: phlebitis.
Inflammation with a clot in a vein:
thrombophlebitis Risk factors for Thrombosis
• Arterial: intermittent claudication, cool,
cyanotic, painful ulcer around one toe
• Venous: none or life threatening (pulmonary
embolism-clot that moved to the lungs),
calf/groin tenderness, swelling, + Homan’s
sign Prophylactic interventions include
oral/parenteral anticoagulant therapy, or
drugs that block platelet Thrombosis
Once a thrombus has formed, anticoagulant
therapy is initiated to prevent clot
enlargement (they don’t dissolve clot that is
May need thrombolytic drugs
Additional medical prophylactic interventions:
antiembolic stockings or sequential
compression devices (pump air in back and
forth), ambulation as soon as possible
Another option: surgery to remove thrombus Embolus
Embolus Material that forms a clot within the
Embolus leaving L ventricle = ischemic
stroke. (goes through aorta to carotid)
Embolus leaving R ventricle = pulmonary
embolus. (it moves over to the lungs)
The clot may travel to a distant point.
Thromboembolus---embolus that began as
a thrombus and was dislodged from the
Treatment---embolectomy or filter Embolus
Emboli Produced by Other Causes
Malignant neoplasms or tumors
Collection of bacteria/infectious exudate
Air- from an IV (always prime the tubing)
Amniotic fluid Embolus
Sudden, involuntary constriction of arterial
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- Spring '14