Alterations in Blood Flow-patho

Arterial or venous system obstruction results in

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Unformatted text preview: s Resulting in Altered Flow in Blood Vessel: Blood May involve arterial or venous system Obstruction results in reduced flow beyond the obstruction (downstream) and increased pressure before the obstruction (upstream) In the arterial system obstruction manifests as distal ischemia In the venous system obstruction manifests as edema Thrombosis, embolus, vasospasm, mechanical obstruction= etiologies Thrombosis Thrombus: a stationary blood clot formed within a vessel or a chamber of the heart. Causes: blood flow slows dramatically, becomes more turbulent, if there is damage to intimal walls or drugs. Arterial thrombosis results in ischemiathis is where oxygenated blood is carried. Venous thrombosis results in edema. Inflammation in a vein: phlebitis. Inflammation with a clot in a vein: thrombophlebitis Risk factors for Thrombosis Risk General Hypercoagulable conditions Pump failure Dysrhythmias Aging Trauma Drugs Arterial Arteriosclerosis/atherosclerosis Venous Immobilization Thrombosis Clinical manifestations • Arterial: intermittent claudication, cool, cyanotic, painful ulcer around one toe (ischemia) • Venous: none or life threatening (pulmonary embolism-clot that moved to the lungs), calf/groin tenderness, swelling, + Homan’s sign Prophylactic interventions include oral/parenteral anticoagulant therapy, or drugs that block platelet Thrombosis Thrombosis Once a thrombus has formed, anticoagulant Once therapy is initiated to prevent clot enlargement (they don’t dissolve clot that is enlargement dissolve there) there) May need thrombolytic drugs Additional medical prophylactic interventions: Additional antiembolic stockings or sequential compression devices (pump air in back and forth), ambulation as soon as possible forth), Another option: surgery to remove thrombus Embolus Embolus Material that forms a clot within the bloodstream. Embolus leaving L ventricle = ischemic stroke. (goes through aorta to carotid) Embolus leaving R ventricle = pulmonary embolus. (it moves over to the lungs) The clot may travel to a distant point. Thromboembolus---embolus that began as a thrombus and was dislodged from the vessel intima. Treatment---embolectomy or filter Embolus Emboli Produced by Other Causes Fat Malignant neoplasms or tumors Collection of bacteria/infectious exudate Air- from an IV (always prime the tubing) Amniotic fluid Embolus Embolus Vasospasm Vasospasm Sudden, involuntary constriction of arterial Su...
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