This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Patients 20% of drugs were ineffective in children even though they
were effective in adults.
were 30% of drugs caused unanticipated side effects, some of
them potentially lethal.
them 20% required dosages different from those that had been
extrapolated from dosages used in adults.
extrapolated 21 Pediatric Patients 22 Drug Therapy in Children
7. Due to organ immaturity very young patients are
highly sensitive to drugs
In neonates and young infants drug responses may
be intense and prolonged.
Protein-binding capacity is limited in young children.
BBB not fully developed at birth.
Drug metabolizing capacity of neonates is low.
Renal excretion is low in neonates.
In children 1 year or older most pharmacokinetic
parameters are the same as adults.
23 Fig. 10-1. Comparison of plasma drug levels in adults and infants.
A, Plasma drug levels following IV injection. Dosage was adjusted for body weight. Note that
plasma levels remain above the minimum effective concentration (MEC) much longer in the
infant. B, Plasma drug levels following subQ injection. Dosage was adjusted for body weight.
Note that both the maximum drug level and the duration of action are greater in the infant. 24 Pharmacokinetics: Children
1 Year of Age and Older
Most pharmacokinetic parameters similar to those in adults
Drug sensitivity more like that for adults than for children
less than 1 year old
less One important difference • Metabolize drugs faster than adults Markedly faster until 2 years of age, then a gradual decline
Sharp decline at puberty
May need to increase dosage or decrease interval between doses 25 26 Drug Administration in
4. Parents are sources of information.
Avoid putting medications in essential foods.
Be aware of child’s reactions.
Give cold juices first as it will dull the taste of
5. Sugarless with children who have Diabetes.
6. Jam and syrup for medicines that do not
dissolve well in water.
7. Record successful method of admi...
View Full Document
This document was uploaded on 03/25/2014.
- Spring '14