Drugs for Pain Opiods and Headaches-pharm

Dosage and administration critical thinking question

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Unformatted text preview: se physical • Good for people with general arthritis Good Nonopioid Centrally Acting Analgesics Analgesics Tramadol (Ultram) Tramadol Clonidine (Duraclom) Tramadol Tramadol • Mechanism of action • • • • – Combination of opioid and nonopioid mechanisms Therapeutic use Pharmacokinetics Adverse effects and interactions Drug interactions – CNS depressants • Abuse liability • Preparations, dosage, and administration – Immediate release and extended release Clonidine Clonidine • Mechanism of pain relief – Alpha2 adrenergic agonist adrenergic • Analgesic use – Used in combination with opioid analgesic • Pharmacokinetics • Adverse effects – Cardiovascular – severe hypotension, rebound Cardiovascular hypertension, bradycardia hypertension, • Contraindications • Preparations, dosage, and administration Critical Thinking Question Mr. L. is on a PCA (patient-controlled analgesia) pump to manage postoperative pain related to recent orthopedic surgery. The PCA is set to deliver MS 6mg/hr basal rate. The nurse discovers the patient to be unresponsive with a respiratory rate of 8 and an oxygen saturation of 84%. What is your initial response? Subsequent actions? Respiratory depression overdose of the narcotic First you would verify the patient is unconscious. You would then ask for help. Next, you would see if they’re breathing. Then you would give CPR. You would give them narcan. You would stop the infussion. Give them some oxygen Sample pharmacologic chart for the management of pain. Although pain and its management are highly individualized, many health care agencies have algorithms or “stepped” approaches for pain management, including the World Health Organization. Health Drugs for Headache Drugs Headache • 90%-95% of people in the U.S. Have headaches each year---occur most in 20— 30 year olds. • Number of patients seeking care is increasing. • Living with headaches can interfere with ADL’s. • Family history. Etiology of Headaches Headache Headache • Common symptom • Triggered by a variety of stimuli – Stress, fatigue, acute illness, sensitivity to Stress, alcohol alcohol • Mild episodes Mild – Relieved by OTCs (aspirin, acetaminophen) • Types of Severe headaches – Migraine, cluster, tension-type Migraine, Headaches Headaches • Migraine headache I: Characteristics and Migraine overview of treatment overview • Migraine headache II: Abortive therapy • Migraine headache III: Preventive therapy • Cluster headaches • Tension-type headache Headaches Headaches • Identifiable underlying causes – Severe hypertension, hyperthyroidism, tumors, Severe infection, and disorders of the eye, nose, sinuses, and throat sinuses, • No identifiable cause – Migraine – Cluster Migraine • More women than men (approximately 20% of the population). • Presentation: may be unilateral, pulsating headache, with moderate to severe throbbing pain associated with nausea, photophobia, may last up to 72 hours. • Associated with triggers. • Two primary goals for the p...
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