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lability, crying spells, social withdrawal.
Physiological symptoms---breast tenderness, abdominal
bloating, increased appetite, weight gain, headache,
Diagnosis---made if the symptoms are sufficiently intense
and must be absent between days 4 and 12 of the
SSRIs and ovulation suppressants are the most effect drug
therapy. Case Study
Ms. W. has been prescribed estrogen
replacement therapy. She comes to the
neighborhood nursing wellness center,
where you are doing your clinical rotation.
Ms. W. asks you whether estrogens cause
breast cancer. How should answer this
If there is a rapid drop off of estrogen, it
could cause breast cancer. Birth Control
Birth Birth Control
Interfering with the reproductive process of
implantation of a fertilized ovum.
implantation Hormonal Contraceptives
Oral contraceptives are drugs to prevent
The most widespread pharmacological use of
the female sex hormones is to prevent
Most oral contraceptives are a combination of
estrogens and progestins.
When used appropriately are nearly 100%
Selection of a contraceptive is based on
effectiveness, safety, and personal choice.
effectiveness, Oral Contraceptives
Mechanism – inhibits ovulation
Classification (two main categories)
– Combination oral contraceptives (OCs)
Estrogen and progestin
– Progestin-only OCs
Three major subgroups of combination---all inhibit
ovulation by negative feedback Ocs (don’t need to know)
– Monophasic---constant amount estrogen & progestin
– Biphasic---estrogen constant & progestin increased to
end of cycle
– Triphasic---amount of estrogen & progestin vary in
three distinct phases
three Combination Oral Contraceptives –
Thromboembolic disorders- DVT, PE
Abnormal uterine bleeding
Use in pregnancy and lactation
– May inhibit ability to secrete hormones
May Benign hepatic adenoma
Other adverse effects Noncontraceptive Benefits of OCs
Decrease the risk of ovarian cancer,
endometrial cancer, ovarian c...
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This document was uploaded on 03/25/2014.
- Spring '14