respiratory tract drugs-pharm

Hydrocodone codeine nonopioid antitussives

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Unformatted text preview: – Opioid antitussives Opioid Codeine and hydrocodone Codeine – Nonopioid antitussives Dextromethorphan Diphenhydramine (benadryl) 26 Common Cold Common Acute upper respiratory viral infection Acute viral Rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, cough, Rhinorrhea, sneeze, sore throat, headache, hoarseness, malaise, myalgia hoarseness, Fever common in kids, rare in adults Self-limited and usually benign No cure – just treatment of symptoms 27 OTC Cold Remedies OTC Combination cold remedies usually Combination contain two or more of the following: – Nasal decongestant – Antitussive – Analgesic (ibuprofen, tylenol, aspirin) – Antihistamine (for cholinergic actions) – Caffeine (to offset effect of antihistamine) 28 Pediatric OTC Cold Remedies Pediatric Use with caution in young children – No proof of efficacy or safety – proof of harm – Avoid OTC cold remedies in children under 2 Avoid years of age years – Only use products labeled for pediatric use – Consult a healthcare professional before giving to Consult a child child – Read all product safety information before dosing – Use the measuring device provided with the Use product product – Discontinue the medicine and seek professional Discontinue 29 care if the child’s condition worsens care Drugs for Asthma Drugs 30 Pathophysiology---Asthma Pathophysiology---Asthma Asthma is defined as recurrent reversible chronic Asthma inflammatory disease. inflammatory Asthmatic attack comprises wheezing, cough and difficulty Asthmatic breathing out. breathing Airway resistance is increased and narrowing of the Airway airways. airways. Includes constriction of the bronchioles, edema of Includes bronchial mucosa, and accumulation of mucus. bronchial Severe attacks are life threatening. Characteristic features include inflammatory changes in Characteristic the airway and abnormal sensitivity to stimuli. the Symptoms of asthma result from a combination of Symptoms inflammation and bronchoconstriction, so treatment must address both components. address 31 32 32 Goal of Asthma Therapy Goal Terminate acute bronchospasm Terminate Prevent or reduce the frequency of asthma attacks. attacks. Classes: quick relief medications and long term quick controller medications. controller The choice of medications is determined by The evidence-based guidelines along with patient response. response. 33 Overview of Drugs for Asthma Asthma Two main pharmacologic classes: – Anti-inflammatory agents Glucocorticoids (prednisone) (steroids) These block the inflammation – Bronchodilators Beta2 agonists (albuterol) 34 Overview of the effects of various antiasthmatic medications. antiasthmatic 35 Inhalation Drug Therapy Inhalation Three obvious advantages: – Therapeutic effects are enhanced – Systemic effects are minimized – Relief of acute attacks is rapid Three types: – Metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) – Dry-powder inhalers (DPIs) Powdery after taste Powdery – Nebulizers Used when trying to reverse bronchospasm Used Used for severe asthmatic attack Used Uses O2 in a container mixed with saline that turns Uses into a mist that someone inhales 36 36 Administration of Inhaled Drugs Administration Aerosol therapy promotes: Bronchodilation and pulmonary decongestion Loosening of secretions Topical application of corticosteroids and Topical other drugs other Moistening, cooling, or heating of ins...
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This document was uploaded on 03/25/2014.

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