Age distributions

Female infanticide the neglect of female children and

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Unformatted text preview: Italy, japan, etc) Look at slides for calculation If p is ½ and q is 9/10 then n must be at least 4 Gender Bias: Y axis is number of males per 100 females: healthy population should have slightly more females than males Since women outlive men, the number of women per thousand men in a typical population should be around 105 Return in terms of income per calorie of protein is higher for boys than girls Why? Female infanticide, the neglect of female children and higher mortality rates of girls relative to boys in every group “son preference” due to factors such as the incidence of dowries, female labor- force participation rates, perceived returns to male and female education Low female wages/opportunity costs: Few opportunities for women in labor markets: Low investment in female human capital Low wages Creates a “vicious cycle” Women with low levels of education, limited opportunities to participate in the labor force, and low wages will choose higher levels of fertility. At some point we will have low birth rates and low death rates: Malthusian balance Britain’s demographic transition from 1700 onwards: Technology that reduced death rate in 1800 was vaccines Early childhood nutrition is critical for improved long- term health So basically, the demographic transition was accompanied by an “epidemiological transition” Epidemiological transition: a transition from infectious disease to chronic degenerative, or man- made diseases as the primary causes of mortality Today, the developing world Is well- into demographic t...
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