IR Lecture -- February 14 Detterence diplomacy and arms control

IR Lecture -- February 14 Detterence diplomacy and arms control

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YALE UNIVERSITY Introduction to International Relations (PLSC 111a) Professor Jolyon Howorth “Deterrence, Diplomacy and Arms Control” 14 February 2006 ************************ 1. Deterrence: who blinks first? Has only ever worked with nuclear weapons Conventional deterrence doesn’t work Distinction between deterrence & containment Deterrence is doing what it takes to keep someone from going nuclear. Containment is meaning to keep a threat in its box. Nuclear war = “suicide from fear of death” Declaratory strategy You come out and state what you think nuclear weapons are for. Countries are saying that they might use nuclear weapons against countries that don’t have nukes but will use other WMD Use of nuclear brinkmanships 2. Diplomacy: the gentle art of persuasion? Getting other countries to do what you want them to do Modern Origins in Florentine Italy Was always linked to promotion of trade Always linked to promotion of trade Should do whatever is best for your country. Usually backed by force… 18th c. France: corps diplomatique Decoding the discourse Must try to figure out what exactly is being said. Pre-1914: bilateralism, secrecy, elites Only deal with other countries. Deliberations are not done in public Post-1914: multilateralism, transparency, democracy After Wilson.
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3. Diplomacy in the Contemporary World Multilateralism – Is most important in this world o United Nations embraces all states on earth All countries are welcome. o Travel & Communications allow it Unlike earlier, you can feasibly do it o Globalization demands it IMPORTANT – there are very few questions that can be solved by one or two countries – war and peace, environment, internet -- o Great Powers swear by it Like playing multilateral game, because they can say they are going in the direction of the international community o Small Powers benefit from it o “Parliamentary diplomacy”: getting in the votes UN Security council is focused on getting the votes. In Iraq, for example – but couldn’t get the vote in the end. Democratization of Diplomacy: Can give people an identity o Debates on major issues in Parl. Assemblies Major parliaments must be consulted on certain issues o Widening of social bases of diplomatic corps? Some people think that it is getting so that more common people can get things done o Role of public opinion and protest movements Governments have to pay attention to public opinion and protest movements o “Two level diplomacy” (Schroeder)
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