IR Lecture -- January 31st_the excluded relations between the north and the south

IR Lecture -- January 31st_the excluded relations between the north and the south

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YALE UNIVERSITY Introduction to International Relations (PLSC 111a) Professor Jolyon Howorth “The Excluded: Relations between North and South” 31 January 2006 Pre Class notes – test two weeks from Thursday. Check on classes server – there will be detailed guide on the test. 1 st slide We now talk about north and south, as opposed to 3 worlds. Our world is a world of growing inequality. 1. A World of Growing Inequality 2.5 bn people live on $1 per day GDP p.c.: Lux $63K; E. Timor $400 Great disparity Top 20% countries: 86% global GDP Bottom 20%: 1% global GDP Top 10 MNCs sales more than GDP of world’s 100 poorest countries Situation getting worse 3 richest individuals have more than the 1.5 billion poorest. This gives you an idea of the huge disparity. 2. Understanding North/South Inequality Colonial Heritage Blame it all on ruthless Europeans… Europeans sacked and divided the earth But decolonization happened 50 years ago. Can you blame this for all the problems? Decolonization per se changed little in terms of inequalities Deconolinatiation changed little. Having a state doesn’t give you power of influence in the world Much done since 1950s to try to help Charities, development aid. Results are varied Very varying results
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Global South is very diverse. Vast disparities between former colonies Why is equatorial guinea so successful? Oil discoveries. Hong Kong and Bermuda are also former colonies. 14 of the 17 th poorest are in sub-Saharan afric Colonization is important WHAT MAKES THE GLOBAL SOUTH? – Politics, Technology, wealth, demography Climate & Environment Is hard to talk about, because it is easy to switch into deterministicism/ racism Difficulties of agricultural yield in many tropical countries Get more in better climates Prevalence of climatic anomalies (drought) Drought and desertification happen Rapid spread of diseases (but this fixable?) Is this fixable? Teacher says yes. Cultural obstacles, ignorance (AIDS) Cultural obstacles, prevent people from moving past certain mindsets. Ignorance as to how things happen (like how aids spreads) How much can be rectified how soon? How quickly can they be fixed. Economics and Development This is the biggest problem Mass poverty (least significant) Disequilibrium between resources & demography Demography 1 billion people was reached after 500k years. In 1875 1.5 billion. In span of one persons life it reached 6 billion. 7 billion in 2012.
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