Chapter 7 The First Clash with the West

Chapter 7 The First Clash with the West - Chapter 7 The...

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Chapter 7 The First Clash with the West The Reponse of China s Scholars Kaozheng scholars, who were from a school that espoused evidential research, began to ques- tion the Qing and some of their policies, noting that there were problems in the Chinese sys- tem but this criticism was dangerous. Hong Liangji: completed jinshi exams, wrote a series of essays in 1790s about China s prob- lems of population, corruption, etc. But when he criticized Qianlong and Heshen, he was sen- tenced to death, which he avoided only by a pardon from Jiaqing, the new emperor. He Changling: combiled a probing but practical collection of documents about the Qing and its policies which highlighted the inherent problems. He advocated an increase in the use of ocean shipping, but his programs were cancelled because workers on the Grand Canal were mad. Gong Zizhen: a scholar who was drawn to the Gongyang commentaries about the Confucian text The Spring and Autumn Annals which, unlike most cyclical views about progress, set out a linear growth model: the age of chaos, the age of ascending peace, and the age of universal peace. Gong s thoughts: -attacked corruption, rituals, and the clich é s in the examination system -pointed to opium abuse, unequal distribution of wealth, foot binding etc, as signs that China was in the age of chaos, the lowest stage. -felt especially that the unequal distribution of wealth would lead to China s ruin. Li Ruzhen: a Confucian scholar who wrote Flowers in the Mirror. He was particularly interested in gender relations, and one of the chapters in the book has role-reversals in which the men have to bind their feet, do their makeup, and pierce their ears. Shen Fu: wrote Six Records from a Floating Life, in which he shows what it was like to be an educated man without prospects in China. Instead, he drifted through with part-time jobs, al- ways feeling held down by his father and his employers.
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  • Spring '12
  • PeterPurdue
  • History, Lin Zexu, First Opium War, opium trade

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