Notes Principles of Biology Immune System 2

Notes Principles of Biology Immune System 2 - Notes...

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Notes Principles of Biology 02/12/14 The Immune System Binding to TLR triggers cytokine production Cytokines = signaling molecules of the immune response NF-kB is a transcription factor that turns on cytokine genes Local response to infection Histamine (produced by mast cells) triggers dilatation of blood vessels ( permeability increases) Signaling molecules (cytokines) activate production of histamines (produced by mast cells) neutrophil escapes into blood stream to the infection + the macrophage phagocytosis to invade bacteria Types of phagocytic cells Macrophages are found throughout the body (organs and tissues) Neutrophils circulate in the blood , are attracted by signals from infected tissues Phagocytosis A macrophage engulfing a yeast cell Phagolysosome (= phagosome + lysosome ) contains lysozyme, proteases, phosphatases, nucleases, lipases, oxidases Killing of microbes within the phagolysosome
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Unformatted text preview: • Toxic oxygen species: • Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) • Nitric oxide (NO) • Increased O 2 uptake = respiratory burst • 2 oxidative mechanisms • Hypochloride (bleach, disinfectant) • Will contribute to destruction of infection Symptoms of the inflammatory response • Pain and swelling • increased blood flow ( reddening-erythema) • outpouring of fluids ( swelling-edema) • Pus = fluid rich in white blood cells, dead pathogens, cell debris • heat ( fever ) Inflammatory response • Can be either local or systemic (throughout the body) • Fever is a systemic inflammatory response, triggered by pyrogens • (=molecules released by macrophages, • cause elevation in body temperature) • Septic shock (life-threatening condition) • caused by an overwhelming inflammatory response...
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  • Spring '14
  • Eichenberger
  • Biology, Transcription, inflammatory response, systemic inflammatory response, overwhelming inflammatory response

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