bio 202 exam 1 study guide(3)

bio 202 exam 1 study guide(3) - C Carbon the backbone of...

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C. Carbon: the backbone of biological molecules a. although cells are 70-95% water, the rest consists mostly of carbon based compounds b. carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form large, complex, and diverse molecules c. proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, fats, and other molecules that distinguish living matter are all composed of carbon compounds. d. with 4 valence electrons, carbon can form 4 covalent bonds with a variety of atoms. This tetravalence makes large complex molecules possible. e. the valences of carbon and its most frequent partners (H, O, N) are the “building code” that governs the architecture of living molecules. D. Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties a. structural isomers: have different covalent arrangements of their atoms b. cis-trans isomers (aka geometric) have the same covalent arrangements but differ in spatial arrangements. c. enantiomers: isomers that are mirror images of each other.
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