Bio 1001 Lecture 10 Notes

Bio 1001 Lecture 10 Notes - Bio 1001 Tom Haffie LECTURE 10...

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Bio 1001 Tom Haffie LECTURE 10 Damage and Mutations Examples 1. Normal Vs. Tautome r: all bases have isomers called Tautomers --> natural spontaneous shift o Normal: T (keto) == A (amino) & G (keto) C (amino) Tautomers : C (imino) == A (amino) & G (keto) Th(enol) Thymine =O become --O--H creates mutation after 2nd DNA replication: single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations 1st repl: tautomer calls alternate base --> "fits" backbone --> not proofread -- > 1/2 "damaged" 2nd repl: tautomer switches back --> calls compl. Base; "alternate base" calls different compl. base pair --> 1/4 "mutated" 1. Analogues --> 5Bu replaces thymine --> tautomerically shifts more frequently (closer to 50/50 equilb. rates) --> more SNPs 2. UV light --> photon frequency creates thymine dimers ( covalently-bonded nitrogenous base ) --> becomes mutation 2nd repl. o Repair (break cov. bond ) 1) animals: excision repair (similar to mismatch repair); Plants: photolyase -- > visible light 3. Indel mutations: insertions or deletions of bases--> strand slippage: same base
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