FLS Chapter 3_ Why Are There Wars_

FLS Chapter 3_ Why Are There Wars_ - So why do states fit...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

Sep 13, 2013 So why do states fit wars, if it is costly to do so, and they should be able to reach a settlement without first fighting the war? 1. States/leaders are irrational: biases and pathologies make them choose to go to war and ignore the costs 2. Leaders make the choice to go to war, but do not pay the costs 3. EVEN A RATIONAL LEADER, CONSIDERING COSTS, MAY FIND IT A RATIONAL/UTILITY-MAXIMIZING DECISION TO GO TO WAR Sep 19, 2013 quiz next thursday. cumulative. draw bargaining model Incomplete information in the bargaining model: Whether your adversary is actually willing to fight Whether you adversary has the capability to win Incomplete Information: RESOLVE (how can it really be measured) Credible threats are difficult to make: War is costly There is an incentive to bluff in order to get a better settlement out of bargaining Revealing all of your strengths may put you at a disadvantage of fighting does happen How to make threats credible Brinkmanship Hand-tying Incurring high costs Reputation from previous threats What Is the Purpose of War? A war is an event involving the organized use of military force by at least two parties that satisfies some minimum threshold of severity. If the main parties to the conflict are both states, its an interstate war; if the main parties to the conflict are actors within a state then its a civil war. 1) Realism: war is the inevitable result of international anarchy (lack of central authority) Anarchy creates insecurity and competition for power Preventive motive: the desire to fight in order to prevent an enemy from becoming relatively more powerful. The bargaining model of war shares the presumption that anarchy leads to a world in which military force is often threatened or used to further state interests and conflicts are addressed through bargaining rather than institutions like courts. Criticism: use of military power imposes costs on states.
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

2) The role of misperceptions or mistakes. Wars must occur because decision makers inaccurately estimate their chances of winning or the costs that will have to be paid. Criticism: difficulties of gathering the necessary information in bargaining A concern about such theories is that war is quite rare and these theories have a hard time explaining why wars happen at some points in time but not others. 3) Finally, a long tradition of scholarship argues that wars are fought not because they serve the interests of state but because they serve the interests of influential groups within the state. >What Do States Fight Over? The root of all wars lies a conflict over things that states value. The purpose of warfare is not to fight but to obtain through fighting or the threat of fighting. Territory has historically been the most common source of trouble since it might contribute to the wealth of the state through natural resources, industrial and agriculture gains. Territory may be fought for cultural, ethnic or historical reasons. A second reason is if it has military or strategic value. A third reason is regime type.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern