Language Change - Chapter 9 Language Change...

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Chapter 9: Language Change Diachronic/Historical Change: comparing one language at two points in time Proto-language: no written evidence, assumed to have been spoken at one time Proto-Germanic: ancestor of Germanic languages Proto-Indo-European: ancestor of Germanic, Irish, French, Greek, Russian, Hindi, and Persian Dead language: no native speakers living Semantic Change Generalization: increasing scope of a word (barn) Specialization: decreasing scope of a word (hound) Amelioaration: elevating connotation of a word (knight) Pejoration: lowering connotation of a word (knave) Taboo: stigmatizing a word/phrase (colored) Metaphor: extending a word outside of its literal sense (foot of the bed) Euphemism: better connotation Association: Changing in meaning based on word’s association with another concept e.g. pen is derived from feather Dilution: gradual loss of semantic content from extensive use as intensifier (e.g. very/true) Word Order Typology
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Language Typology: classification of languages according to the arrangement of words in sentences and morphemes in words Postposition:
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  • Spring '14
  • EricDrewry
  • King John, English vowel shortening, Middle English vowel, Word order typology

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