Syntax - Chapter 4 Syntax Syntactic category grammatical...

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Chapter 4: Syntax Syntactic category: grammatical category, part of speech Hierarchical structure: Transformation: Lexical categories: N=noun V=verb A=adjective D=determiner PRN=pronoun PossPRN=possessive pronoun P=preposition ADV=adverb CONJ=conjunction Phrase structure rules: left-to-right ordering of items within a phrase -which elements are permitted in a particular type of phrase -the left-to-right ordering of those elements -whether any of the elements Phrase/constituent: Constituents = one node dominates only those
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Sentence: Phrasal category: NP, VP, PP, etc. Tree diagrams: Recursion: repeating two types of phrases by embedding them each other Embedding: allowing them to directly dominate the other Structural ambiguity: Passivazation: Active voice: Subject does the verb Passive voice: Object becomes the subject Selectional restrictions (semantic): constraints on the arguments (e.g. subject and
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Unformatted text preview: object) that lexical categories can take. E.G. admire requires a human subject; frighten requires an animate object Subcategorization restrictions (syntactic): constraints on the kind of complements (DO, PP) that lexical categories can take. E.G. Conceal requires a direct object, sleep cannot have a direct object. Transformation: Operation moving a lexical or phrasal category from one location to another within a structure.-Wh-movment: move the wh-phrase into the clause-initial position “something”=what-I-movement (inflection): moving the tensed verb (first verb) to the left of the subject NP (e.g. has he concealed the document?)-Constraint on movement (coordinate structure constraint): no element can move out of a coordinate structure (eg “salt and pepper” becomes “what”)...
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  • Spring '14
  • EricDrewry
  • Grammar, Passive voice, lexical categories

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