Psych 295 Lecture notes

Psych 295 Lecture notes - Carmela Anastacio Notes Psych 295...

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Carmela Anastacio Notes Psych 295 Prenatal development is divided into three periods: o Germinal: 0 to 2 weeks Begins at conception Cell division is extremely active The blastula has developed toward the end of the first week after conception Blastula is a ball of cells around a fluid-filled center Cells begin to differentiate to form supportive structures o Embryo 2-8 weeks Begins when implantation is complete Cells begin to differentiate, creating supportive structures: Placenta Umbilical cord Amniotic sac (contains amniotic fluid that helps cushion the sac) o Fetal 9-38 weeks Begins at the 9 th week until birth Organs and systems mature and develop Major development of the brain and nervous system Age of viability: 24 weeks Viability means there is a 50% chance of surviving outside the womb if given high-quality intensive care Half of surviving fetuses born at 24 weeks have serious anomalies Ovulation and Fertilization o Ovulation: Occurs about 2 weeks after start of a woman’s menstrual period Release of the ovum (egg) The ovum travels through fallopian tubes Fertilization may take place Prenatal Environmental Influences o Influences on fetal development Congenital abnormalities: Genetic defects Environmental influences Maternal age: Linked to increased incidence of congenital anomalies One in 25 mothers over the age of 45 will have a child with Down syndrome
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o Age may be related to age of the ova, which may become damaged over time Hormone levels also shift as women age Teratogens and their effects Viruses (HIV, rubella, the flu): o May cross the placental barrier and affect the baby Prescription Drugs: o Certain prescription drugs can cause various types of damage Alcohol: o May cause fetal alcohol affects or fetal alcohol syndrome Smoking: o May lead to stillbirth, prematurity, spontaneous abortion, low birth weight and cognitive deficits Amphetamine drugs (i.e.: cocaine) o May damage the nervous system/brain development The Newborn o Average full-term newborn Weighs between 5 pounds, 8 ounces and 9 pounds, 8 ounces
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