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Unformatted text preview: asoni a females, in order to lay their eggs, must find a pupating fly
to act as a host: once located, the females will drill a hole through the puparium wall, and inject
venom into it to kill the larva inside. They then proceed to lay their eggs on the surface of the fly
pupa, which then hatch and consume it for food as they grow, pupate, and metamorphosize
inside the pupal casing, and finally emerge. N asoni a reproduces through a haplo-diplo mating system, where an unfertilized female
will lay haploid offspring, which will result in males, and where a fertilized female will lay
diploid offspring, rearing more females. Wolba chi a , however, interferes with this normal cycle
by four main mechanisms of disruption: feminization, male killing, parthenogenesis, and
cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). In CI, the sperm of infected males and uninfected females, or
of females infected with a different strain of Wolb a chi a , are rendered incompatible with one
another due to Wolba chi a
failure of fertilization, and thus in all-male broods; in contrast, in parthenogenesis, unfertilized
females will develop diploid eggs which in turn form all-female broods from unfertilized eggs.
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