Chapters 1 and 2 - Chapter 1 Neuroscience scientific study...

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Chapter 1 Neuroscience- scientific study of the nervous system Biological psychology- field that relates behavior to bodily processes o Synonyms: Behavioral neuroscience, physiological psychology, brain and behavior o Focus: understand brain structures and functions that respond to experiences and generate behavior 1500- 1000 BC: Preparation of tombs and mummification in ancient Egypt belief that dead would enter afterlife o Preserved: liver, lungs, stomach, intestines o Brain was discarded Brain is not mentioned in Bible—heart is Aristotle (350 BC) believed mental capacities were properties of the heart (kindhearted, openhearted, heartless) Hippocrates believed emotion, perception, and thought were functions of the brain Galen (2 nd Cent) proposed that behaviors result from the movement of “animal spirits” from the brain through nerves to the peripheral body o Learned through experience treating gladiators Leonardo DaVinci (1452- 1519) produces neuroanatomical illustrations of nerves and brain structures Depiction of God- Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo resembles midline view of human brain Rene Descartes (1596- 1650) attempted to explain how control of behavior might resemble workings of a machine—proposed concept of spinal reflexes and neural pathways o Argued that free will and moral choice could not arise from this machine o Believed soul governed behavior through point of contact Dualism- notion that the mind has an immaterial aspect that is different from the material body and brain Phrenology (1800)- belief that specific regions of the brain controlled behaviors, feelings and personality traits Lead to localization of function- different brain regions specialize in specific behaviors Paul Broca (1824- 1880)- saw that damage to particular region of the left side of the brain causes problems with speech production Truth: certain brain regions become more activated and diff. tasks activate diff. brain regions Ivan Pavlov (1849- 1936)- Classical conditioning in animals Karl Lashley (1890- 1958)- Idea: memory is not localized in one region of the brain Donald Hebb (1904- 1985) - showed that cognitive processing could be accomplished by networks of active neurons. Molded by repeated activation patterns into functional circuits Hypothesized how neurons strengthen connections as consequence of experiences— Hebbian synapse: changeable connection between neurons that remains hot topic in neuroscience. Theoretical perspectives
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o Systematic description of behavior: description of behavior must be precise and reveal the essential features of the behavior by using accurately defined terms and units. o Evolution of brain and behavior: biological psychologists employ evolutionary theory by evaluating similarities among species due to shared ancestry and by looking for differences in behavior and biology that evolved as adaptations to diff. environments o Life- span development of brain and behavior: ontogeny- process where individual changes in the course of lifetime. By observing how specific behaviors
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