AP Bio Chapter 14 Study Guide - .6 AP Bio Respiration and...

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Unformatted text preview: .6 AP Bio: Respiration and Photosynthesis Study lGuide -The Kreb's, or citric acid cycle. occurs in -Ferrnentation uses NAD‘ to oxidize {allular respiration refers to the system the matrix of the mitochondria. Each sugar by glycolvsis, producing 2 ATP of oxidation {loss of electrons by the pvruvate is converted to Acetyl Got The molecules in addition to the original 2 reducing elem] and reduction [addition cycle runs twice for each glucose from glycoiysis. Mooholfarmenhtion of electrons to the ouidlzingagentl to molecule to produce one ATP molecule converts pvruvate into ethanol, then produce energy from organic for each pyruvate l2}. aoetaidehyda. Many bacteria, such as compounds. Respiration can either be )3, (41M 5 ~12. yeast, use alcohol fermentation. Yeast aerobic [with oxygen) or anaerobic 5- r I 1 . <. .‘5 is usedII mfikefigeads and alcohols. CEHHO, + -) 6C0; + 6H + Energy's” {ATP + Head” (“all sPhosphorvlation powered by the redox ""‘ reactions of the electron transport chain XI is calledoiddativepmhorylation. 110 lwithouto on also fermentation) . _ Iu. Jcfi'a Substrate-level phosphorylaflon occurs “M I “k — . { Q -. in glycoivsis and the citric acid cycle ,_ * K s lactic acid mum reduces 1when the phosphate added to ADP D (45 ' ‘ pvruvate directly into NADH, with comes from a substrate rather than 5w for? .. So‘sr‘sl lactate as an end product. Bacterial inorganic PhOSth- -\ it] CL A lactic acid fermentation is used to make W5 occurs in the cruel 5' 519 59.9 cheese and yogurt; humans produce carbon Ell-19°59 ‘5 broken down into two AW? lactic acid during exercise. it is later 3-carbon Plim- ThE EHEI'EY ' M carried to the liver by blood, 1illrhere it is investment phase uses 2 ATP and the -The electron tampon chain occurs in converted back to pyruvate. Obligate ”EVE? payoff phase Pfaduces ATP the uistae of the mitochondria. it uses anaerobes can only use anaerobic ' electrons carried by FADH; and NADi-l to respiration; other organisms use it only power ATP synthesis. 32-34 ATP when oxygen is lacking lfacultativa molecules are produced. The total anaerubesl. 2, A W number varies because the redox ,ml “‘11? reactions and phosphorvlatlon do not have a fixed ratio, the type of carrier glow“ resuits in different numbers of ATP . (NAD‘ results in 3, FAD results in 2), and 2 'li ‘ the proton-motive force produced may be used to power other kinds ofwork. . l. 4 __ . .5_ 1Lnrn's'. Ll. ' —-4n.iJ " )4 \ ._ ~Photosyrrthesls is the conversion of : light energy into chemical energy, KI stored in sugar. It occurs in the chloroplast of plant cells. \- D _ l _ _ . “it E _ ”6032+ 12H20 + Light energy -) I I - uric; WAD}- i-l- gig-"AU (Ejffl‘ql‘l'wr-‘0413flg CgHHO§+ 602 + 6H20 ‘- ‘ u' was» "Fa - ‘ <; ”E . \ I J l’ {J V48; , I . . A}: g“ I CW’I - —The chloroplast is double-membraned, '.sI-"......- ism stacksoftiwlakoldsmalledgranmare - Jl l - slg‘l'he protons transported across the surrounded by the stroma. “‘ membrane create an electrochemical _ l 7‘ L; "p gradient. ATPsynmassistsfite s «~---" protons to diffuse back across the L‘; membrane using it to bind an inorganic I. .[s phosphate toADP wards. M”- 3.“ s‘ I fps-«l ‘1)Q._.¢::I3s . “so "-1 -' JP‘ C up \ v-l: 1"? c . . J l J' .5 s ._ \ ‘1 -.1L ‘rx 5; F;- skit.) 5.. rjr‘fb‘f _ I \r‘ {I it“: \I ‘ 1"; ls a. ¢ .6 {9-1- :KT'T“ . le. obi-Jen": "1" r C ) '* r.- r ”on ...
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