SCIENCE
AP Chem Chapter 11 Study Guide

AP Chem Chapter 11 Study Guide - AP bio Call Study Guide...

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Unformatted text preview: AP bio: Call Study Guide metabolism consists of all an organism’s chemical reactions; metabolic pathways start with a molecule that is altered In a series of defined steps by specific enzymes to produce a certain product. Cataboilc pathways break down complex molecules (Le. cellular respiration}. Anabolic pathways consume energy (ATP! to combine simple molecules to form complex structures (Le. protein synthesis}. «energy is the capacity to cause change. Kinetic energy is associated with relative movement {i.e. moving limbs}. thermal energy is associated with the random movement of particles (Le. light, used in photosynthesis]. Potential energy is energy possessed due to location or structure {i .e. the potential of an organism at a high altitude to falll. chemical energy refers to the potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction {l.e. breakdown of glucose]. -thermodynamios is the study of energy transformations in collections of matter. The first law of thermodynamics says that energy can be transferred or transformed, but not dastroyed {principle of conservation of energy}. The chemical energy in food is converted to kinetic and thermal energy as It is consumed. The second law states that every energy transformation increases the entropy of the universe; more heat is produced and forms of matter, such as living orga nlsms, decay. -For a reaction to be spontaneous it must Increase the entropy of the universe. Free energy Is the amount of a system's energy that can perform work when temperatures and pressures are uniform In a cell. Molecules diffusing across membranes to areas of low conoe ntration are spontaneous. as is the breakdown of sugar. The opposite, however, require energy Input. fit-l.- Difi'dlwioh % \cJ Q & C her? I‘m Q3 y Q11 R n .5 RCA @ inorganic reactions Involve a net release of free energy ii. e. the breakdown of glucose in down by a series of reactions. and released. It is then received by a system which uses it for photosynthesis. -ATP is used to power cell processes. The pushing of endergonlc reactions (Le. polymer synthesis: ls chemical work. The pumping of substances across membranes against gradients (Le. protein pumps in the cell membraneiis transport work. Mechanical work includes cilia movement, muscle contraction, and chromosome movement during cellular reproduc ion. ‘ 3.3% _. 4”;- - Energy coupling allows an exergonic process to drive an endergonlc one, facilitated by a phosphorylated intermediate. m 10-100 urn Single strand of DNA, Nucleus with DNA; concentrated in RNA; genetic material nucleold; circular found in some or. anelles -A smaller object has a greater ratio of surface area to volume. As cell size Increases, It becomes harder for necessary substances to cross the membrane in great enough quantities to meet the needs of the larger volume. Cells develop mlcrovllli or narrow, elongated forms to compensate. Large organisms have more cells, not larger ones. r—_""—-—-—_ FR 1'; - ,__’\\ fl fl—“fl Sign ares-rm“ respiration]. Endergonic reactions absorb free 1 AV energy from their surroundings (Le. the formation of glucose in photosynthesis]. -cells that have reached equilibrium are in a closed system and can do no work; they are dead. While living. cells are in an open system (Glucose ls received by a system, broken flak-w i% Lb“ q, - Contains most of a cell's genetic Information. Encloses the nucleus. separates It from the cytoplasm. Nuclear envelope c [double membrane Net of filaments that supports the nuclear enveloe form within Nuclear lamina Chromosome Genetic information- carryln structures Complex of proteins and DNA that makes chromosomes Center of nucleus where ribosomal RNA Nucleolus F is assembled s nthesis -The endomembrane system: The endoplasmic reticulum is connected to the nuclear envelope. Smooth Ell lacks ribosomes, ‘ and helps to synthesize lipids, detoxify poisons. and metabolize carbs. Rough ER has E ribosomes, which allows it to synthesize proteins. Often these are glyoopmtelns. Vesicles transport material between M nonconnected segments. The Golgi body I modifies and stores products of the ER before sending them elsewhere in the cell. Lysosomes are used to digest molecules. often by using phagocytosls to form food vacuoles. Contractile vacuoles pump excess water out of the cell. Central vacuoles In plants stockpile various molecules. -Mitochondria are the sites of cellular respiration. Their inner membrane. the cristae. encloses the mitochondrial matrix. chloroplasts are a member of the plastid group of plant organelles that are the sites of photosynthesis in autotrophic cells. They consist of disk-like thylaltolds stacked Into granum, su rrou nded by the strorna. Both have double membranes. The cell symbiosis theory suggests that both originated as separate cells which were absorbed and formed a mutual relationship with the host cell. -Peroxisomes are not part of the endomembrane system. They are involved with reactions that produce hydrogen peroxide as a byproduct. the network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm is the cytoskeleton, consisting of microtubules {thiclc composed of dimer columns, act as 'monorails’i, microfllaments (small. composed of actin spirals. bears tension; works with myosin for muscle contraction l, and Intermediate filaments q—II' L ...
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