KIN 405 Lecture 8 - The$Endocrine$System$...

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The Endocrine System
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What is a hormone? Messenger molecules Synthesized by endocrine glands in response to chemical signals or neural stimulation and released into blood or secreted into different cells Act on hormone-specific receptors on target (cells) tissues or directly on cell DNA
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Hormones : substance released by cell into bloodstream that affects distant cells. (e.g. adrenal glands release cortisol inhibit amino acid uptake in muscle). : cell releases hormone inside itself (e.g. IL-2 secretion). Paracrine secretion : hormone released to act on neighbouring cells, circulation is not needed to contact target cells (e.g. histamine, clotting factors).
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Importance of hormones in exercise management ! Hormones affect multiple tissues, including muscle ! Involved in metabolic and cellular processes associated with adaptations to training ! Manipulate naturally with Resistance & Cardiovascular Training ! Ill-designed exercise programs ! ! ineffective program
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Remodeling of Muscle Involves: Disruption and of muscle fibres Inflammatory response (immune system) Hormonal interactions Synthesis of new proteins – & play a role Incorporation of new proteins into sarcomeres ( " cell size) Muscle remodelling – gene level
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Effects of Resistance Training Protein Turnover Amino acids Protein Diet Tissue Structure
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Hormones and Protein Synthesis Anabolic hormones: Main ones: Insulin, Insulin-like growth factors (IGF’s), Testosterone and Growth hormone. • Promote . Catabolic hormones: Main ones: Cortisol and Progesterone. • Promote of proteins. Hyper- vs Hypo- thyroidism – affects energy levels and substrate metabolism
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Testosterone Promote growth hormone response !
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  • Fall '12
  • MarinaMourtzakis
  • Cortisol, amino acid uptake

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