Exam II Study Guide - ShortAnswer/IDterms(/ Foreignpolicy:...

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Short Answer/ID terms (be able to provide a definition/explanation of each term and tell me  why it is important  in the study of foreign policy or give an example of its importance): Foreign policy:  policies and interactions with the environment outside the US borders      Magnitsky Act:  named after Russian attorney & whistleblower who died in a Russian prison;  passed by U.S. Congress in late 2012. Freezes the assets and restricts Visa applications for those  involved in Magnitsky’s death and abuse as well as other human rights violators. It led to Russia  banning Americans from adopting Russian babies and is an example of modern-era post cold war  era tensions between the US and Russia Rogue State (include at least 2 identifiers of a rogue state in your definition):  state that  intentionally violates the well-established norms and ethical standards of international conduct.  Identified by: development of WMD capabilities, international terrorism, posing military threat,  challenging international norms, nondemocratic regime, internal repression of citizens, overt  aggression towards another state NATO : found by the Washington Treaty in 1949 consisting of democratic, capitalistic countries.  NATO’s essential purpose is to safeguard the freedom and security of its members through political  and military means.   Major actor even in post cold war era especially in the Middle East  (Afghanistan, Libya) Security Dilemma:  vicious –circle situations created when defensive weapons are acquired by a  country and those acquisitions are perceived by the adversary nation as offensive in nature and  thus, the adversary nation begins to build up its defensive weapons New START:  signed by President Obama & President Medvedev in April 2010. Reduces nuclear  missiles by half. Cuts in the number of deployed nuclear warheads. Overall cuts – about 1/3rd 1979 Hostage Crisis:  diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States. Fifty-two Americans  were held hostage for 444 days (November 4, 1979 to January 20, 1981), after a group of Iranian  students supporting the Iranian Revolution took over the US Embassy in Tehran. The crisis also  marked the beginning of U.S. legal action, or economic sanctions against Iran, that further  weakened ties between Iran and the United States. Two-level game:  President has to take into account domestic and international politics  Preventive Diplomacy (include at least 2 PD strategies in your definition):  Idea of acting early  to prevent issues from escalating into conflict; reduce tensions and deal with the conflicts of today  before the turn into the crises of tomorrow. Strategies include: Economic development, preventing 
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