BIOL 2050 Lecture 3 - Mendelian genetics Part 1 BIOL 2050...

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9/19/2011 1 Mendelian genetics Part 1 BIOL 2050 Lecture 3 Mendel and his experiments The principles of heredity Predicting the outcome of crossing individuals Crosses with one trait Simple Mendelian traits in humans Overview Gregor Mendel Discovered basic principles of heredity -How are traits passed from parents to offspring? Studied pea plants ( Pisum sativum) Principles he discovered apply to all complex life forms Pea plant relatively short generation time, number of discrete traits to study Had no knowledge of DNA structure, how chromosomes work etc... Gregor Mendel
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9/19/2011 2 Selectively bred +28,000 pea plants Studied seven visible and discrete traits Kept detailed notes and used statistics, probability computations, to predict outcomes Genotype : combination of alleles on a chromosome Heterozygote : organism with 2 different alleles at a locus Homozygote : organism with same allele at a locus Phenotype : characteristic of an organism (e.g. hair colour, height) Definitions...
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9/19/2011 3 Artificial pollination Created plants that were homozygote for either dominant and recessive traits Then crossed them Monohybrid cross Monitor one pair of traits Cross two pure bred parental (P 1 ) strains with contrasting traits Offspring (F 1 ) only had phenotype of one parent (dominant trait) F 1 self fertilised offspring F 2 F 2 had traits of both parents in P generation Monohybrid cross Monitor one pair of traits Cross two pure bred parental (P 1 ) strains
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