BIOL 2050 Lecture 8 Chromosone variation and DNA structure

BIOL 2050 Lecture 8 Chromosone variation and DNA structure...

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10/3/2011 1 Chromosome variation and DNA structure BIOL2050 Lecture 8 Chromosome maps karyotypes Chromosome mutations Rearrangements, changes in chromosome number DNA structure Nucleotides, antiparallel strands and hydrogen bonds DNA packaging into chromosomes Histones, chromatin Overview Explain what a karyotype is Understand chromosome rearrangements and the consequences each of them Describe aneuploidy and polyploidy and give some examples of these Describe primary and secondary DNA structures Outline how DNA is packaged into chromosomes At the end of this lecture you will be able to..
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10/3/2011 2 Chromosome structure and variations Chromosome structure Chromosomes are sister chromatids joined by a centromere and stabilised by telomeres at each end Chromosomes are divided into four types based on the position of the centromere
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10/3/2011 3 ...both in number and in the structure of chromosomes themselves play an important role in evolution These variations are identified by constructing a karyotype Variations in chromosomes... Complete set of chromosomes possessed by an organism Karyotype Metaphase chromosomes lined up in descending order Prepared from actively dividing cells e.g. bone marrow Stained to reveal different base pairs... Why construct a karyotype? Assess whether there are extra, missing or abnormal chromosomes Determine if there are abnormalities that can be passed to progeny Identify whether there is a Y chromosome present Karyotype
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10/3/2011 4 Karyotype preparation Chromosomes in metaphase Chemical preservation Staining Photography Stop entering anaphase G banding with Giemsa A-T base pairs Q banding with Quinacrine mustard C-G v A-T base pairs C banding Position of centromere Karyotype preparation Q banding G banding C banding Mutations can be rearrangements
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