Class 6 IR - International Institutions and War September...

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International Institutions and War September 30th-October 4th
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Plan for the week 1. International Institutions and Security Cooperation 2. Alliances 3. Collective Security
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International Institutions and War 1. International Institutions and Security Cooperation 2. Alliances 3. Collective Security
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International Institutions and Security Cooperation 1. Cooperation in anarchy 2. Despite anarchy, cooperation is plentiful •. Envisioning hierarchy as domestic and anarchy as international is a false dichotomy.
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International Institutions and Security Cooperation Why do states cooperate on security when they do not have to? Why and under what conditions does security cooperation emerge in anarchy?
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International Institutions and War 1. International Institutions and Security Cooperation 2. Alliances 3. Collective Security
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Alliances Alliances are commitments by states to cooperate on security policy. Types - Bilateral or among several states (NATO) - Asymmetrical -- a powerful state commits to defending a weaker state (for
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Alliances
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Alliances Alliances are costly: Commitment of blood and treasure to defend another Must be upheld to be credible, even if defeat is likely Alliances limit freedom, as consultation with allies is necessary before taking action or making decisions
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Alliances Why form alliances? Motives for alliances - Weak state may gain protection from powerful rivals - Strong state may signal its resolve to defend weak state - Combining resources may economize,
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Alliances and the balance of power Balancing results in roughly equal blocs Small states seek to avoid domination by alliance leader Alliance with strong state threatens state freedom Balancing does not explain all alliance formation Other explanations of alliance formation:
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Alliances are institutions Military alliances help their members cooperate militarily in the event of a war. They create expectations of behavior: - “If one of us is attacked, we’ll all respond” - “We won’t go to war with one another” - …
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Alliances Alignment of Interests
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European Alliances Toward the end of the nineteenth century, Germany emerged as a single power. Early twentieth-century states formed contending alliances in response to this rising German power. The alliance pattern contributed to the outbreak of World War I: - Small conflicts escalated.
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Alliances Alliances in the 1920s and 30s did not prevent World War II: Britain did not support France when Germany challenged the harsh peace of the Treaty of Versailles.
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