NEU258_Lecture6_Sleep notes

NEU258_Lecture6_Sleep notes - Lecture 6 Sleep Tuesday 11:00...

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Lecture 6 -... Audio recording started: 11:05 AM Tuesday, October 02, 2012 Circadian rhythm = your 24 hours cycle Temperature, eating (times) etc… are all controlled/regulated by a 24 hour cycle Humans tend to have a 25-26 hour cycle Diurnal animals ten to have a slightly longer cycle, but nocturnal animals tend to have slightly shorter cycles. Putting people into a cave (no light, sound, temperatures - all cut off) - this would make them attune to a natural cycle slightly longer than 24 hours It helps to reset our internal clocks (from jetlag) Light at the periphery tends to work better - helps to entrain your clock Light is the main cue affecting our 24 hour cycle It alters the clock itself Later use a stimulus of a lot of noise - noise doesn’t just wake them up at a particular instance in time, but it resets their clock. Rat experiment - put them in a dark room (in a constant situation) Noise also helps to entrain your clocks Temperature can reset/entrain clocks as well They are present in all animals (evolved very early - before split between insects and vertebrates) They give us an internal clock - present inside neurons and the genes can be modified by electrical signals Proteins produced by the genes are light-sensitive (thus, the clock can be modified by light) There is a set of genes that interact with each other - produce a natural endogenous cycle of 24 hours It produces melatonin - it can act as a neurotransmitter and a hormone Serotonin is a precursor to melatonin The pineal gland - pea-sized in the human (people believed it was the place where the soul resided) Light can break it down Levels are higher at night - in the dark Melatonin can be used to correct jetlag/other sleep deficits It promotes sleep Melatonin has a huge impact on our 24 hour cycles The pineal gland is a small gland buried in the brain Many animals without cortexes covering the brain - the pineal gland is at the edge of the brain This makes it a light-sensitive spot that is often called the "3 rd eye" Some light can get through the skull of amphibians - directly affecting the pineal gland; therefore it can directly affect the melatonin in the pineal gland The only way light can affect our 24 hour cycle is indirectly through our eyes - via detection through the eye The pineal gland itself is not the bodies natural clock The nucleus that seems to be the key clock is the suprachiasmatic nucleus Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) (naming info)- See Diagram 1
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  • Fall '11
  • Graziano
  • REM Sleep, pineal gland

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