NEU258_Lecture4_Motivation_Reward1 notes

NEU258_Lecture4_Motivation_Reward1 notes - Lecture 4...

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Lecture 4 -... Audio recording started: 11:04 AM Tuesday, September 25, 2012 Check out the lecture outlines on Blackboard It is not always the case that it is excitatory, it can be inhibitory in certain circuits For example glutamate = very common neurotransmitters (excitatory) Involved in creating IPSPs = actively suppresses neurons It is very common throughout the brain Another example is GABA (gamma-Aminobutyric acid) - it is inhibitory Involved in mood, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia Another example is dopamine Deals with happiness There are also drugs which affect serotonin levels Apparently turkey raises serotonin levels Another is serotonin There are many kinds of neurotransmitters There are some systems or circuits that have a function, but the neurotransmitter itself is involved in the circuit, but does not have the circuit's function Common misconception: neurotransmitters have functions - they don’t have specific functions Raising a level of a neurotransmitter will affect many functions and activities in the body Involved in muscle function and affects heart rate It affects neuromuscular junction in skeletal muscle Another neurotransmitter is acetylcholine (ACh) Information flows through a complicated system in a very complicated way - broad vision of how the brain works as a computing machine This is a very static view of the brain - it is actually always changing Synapses are the key to channeling information in the brain Learning deals with how the brain changes around synapses and system structures in the nervous system one synapse can change its strength, very interesting complex behavior can occur For example apple = red (this is a simple association) Remembering what happened yesterday is simply recalling a string of information Recalling one bit of information leads to the next bit and so on... How do we learn things? Recalling one thing leads to recalling another Thinking thought A activates the thought of B The associative nature of memory is quite old Memory works in an associative fashion There are neurons that deal with seeing green - active neurons signal something green They function separately There are also those that deal with roundness Hebb put forth ideas on this: See diagram 1: Donald O. Hebb ideas regarding memory (Hebbian): Lecture 4 - Motivation and Reward I Tuesday, September 25, 2012 11:00 AM NEU 258 - Fundamentals of Neuroscience Page 1
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Both types on neurons are active They may be weakly connected/linked neurons (dealing with roundness, and green color) This is a Hebbian synapse
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